The fixed effects are specified as regression parameters. To do this, you use the by prefix command. , males vs females, employed vs unemployed, under 21. The standard source in Economics, Sociology, Political Science, Medical Research, Transport Research, and Environmental Economics, to name just a few, the eighth edition of Econometric Analysis provides a comprehensive survey of econometrics, with significant pedagogical content that will continue to serve as a modern, up-to-date text and reference for future practioners. In this example, the dependent variable is the number of athletes that had a "highly abnormal" hematologic profile. This webpage provides recommendations for econometrics books. Stata for Students: Bar Graphs. you will get everything inside a single package. continuity correction. The script I made was based on the example and can be adapted to count other kinds of sequences in datasets. 0f“),1,2) While it is true that the basic arithmetic operations will not help, there exists a function in Stata that will return the same first 2-digit code. Statistics in the complete detailing of data right from the planning of data collection in the form of surveys and experiments. Alternatively, as is illustrated in the example above, a fixed format can be requested by specifying a single integer indicating the desired number of decimal places. Decennial Census Datasets A dataset is the assembled result of one data collection operation (for example, the 2010 Census) as a whole or in major subsets (2010 Census Summary File 1). Create New, or Modify Existing, Variables: Commands generate/replace and egen. The integer records the number of time units (whatever you define them to be) that have passed from an agreed-upon base, which for Stata is 1960. Through innovative analytics, BI and data management software and services, SAS helps turn your data into better decisions. This is applicable to an odd number list; in case of an even number of observations, there is no single middle value, so it is a usual practice to take the mean of the two middle values. I describe how to generate random numbers and discuss some features added in Stata 14. Stata | Graphics. Remarks and examples stata. Stata for Students: Bar Graphs. A Stata date is simply a number, but with the %td format applied Stata will interpret that number as "number of days since January 1, 1960. ) split the last 2 numbers into another variable. Examples of stratums might be males and females, or managers and non-managers. Basics of STATA This handout is intended as an introduction to STATA. For example, below is the data contained in our example Excel worksheet: For example, below is the data contained in our example Excel worksheet:. Count variables. Using Postfile in Stata (+2 examples) Postfile can be used to generate new, computed datasets and to subset data into new datasets in Stata. Indication of the number of years of formal education that a person requires in order to easily understand the text on the first reading. When using AsJob , the job is created on the local computer and the results are automatically returned to the local computer, even though the job runs on the remote computers. To handle the two types of observations, we use two vectors, one for the numbers, another one to indicate if the number is a right censored one. I discuss macros and loops, and show how to write your own (simple) programs. The data in 401K. Remarks and examples References Also see. Overview; as suggested in the Stata FAQ on "Estimating (count) number of observations Examples. Administrative Healthcare Data: A Guide to Its Origin, Content, and Application Using SAS; Advanced Log-Linear Models Using SAS. In an attempt to avoid forgetting these details in the future and potentially help future researchers, I thought I’d post a checklist for generating regression and summary statistics tables. A raw score is the total number of score points a test taker obtains by answering questions correctly on a test. 9 on the side and the top number is. Basic Panel Data Commands in STATA Panel data refers to data that follows a cross section over time—for example, a sample of individuals surveyed repeatedly for a number of years or data for all 50 states for all Census. Your job is to copy the R code above and paste in the R console. By adjusting for inflation, you uncover the real growth, if any. The complex number e iθ has the identity: e iθ = cos(θ) + i sin(θ) i is the imaginary unit (the square root of -1). Look for a job. Overview of Factor Analysis. Centre for Multilevel Modelling. Basic syntax and usage. McGovern Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies Geary Institute and School of Economics, University College Dublin August 2012 Abstract This document provides an introduction to the use of Stata. The latter corresponds to the total number of responses given by all respondents. Now, you can open this CSV file in the stata using the insheet command. Enter any data, customize the chart's colors, fonts and other details, then download it or easily share it with a shortened url | Meta-Chart. Publication quality tables in Stata: a tutorial for the tabout program like to flick ahead and skim these examples before reading the more detailed exposition. Train (2003, 230) recom-mends that # should be at least as large as the prime number used to generate the sequences. Making Regression Tables in Stata. The number of observations is limited by your computer's memory, as long as it doesn't exceed about two billion in Stata/SE and about a trillion in Stata/MP. These are a convenient way of observing the relationship between two variables, or visualizing OLS regressions. Example: The very first treated observation is matched with id 2. Examples include: the number of children a couple has, the number of doctors visits per year a person makes, and the number of trips per month that a person takes. Now, you can open this CSV file in the stata using the insheet command. Most of the data are concentrated on a few small discrete values. Task 3c: How to Generate Means Using Stata. Means and Variance by Time and Group. Consider the college applicant who has determined. You measure the height of every tree in the orchard in centimeters (cm) The heights vary from 100 cm to 340 cm. For example, t-statistics are printed using two decimal places and R-squared measures are printed using three decimal places. number of non missing values The first thing we are going to do is determine which variables have a lot of missing values. Create Your Spring 2020 Course Sites. It is critical that when you run your own analyses, you generate your own syntax. raw data and create stata data set log using cd4-readin , replace set memory 40m. BitChute aims to put creators first and provide them with a service that they can use to flourish and express their ideas freely. The easiest way to run Stata in batch from the login node is to use the queue scripts. This is because the predicted values are b 0 +b 1 X. Description. StataCorp is a leading developer in statistical software, primarily through its flagship product Stata. Go to Module 14: Missing Data, and scroll down to Stata Datasets and Do-files Click "14. Colin Cameron Department of Economics, U. For example, when you subtotal a horizontal range using option 1, such as AGGREGATE(1, 1, ref1), hiding a column does not affect the aggregate sum value. uk Abstract. In the third form, prtest tests. Speaking Stata: On getting functions to do the work Nicholas J. ) are compared to identify the optimal model. estpost is a tool make results from some of the most popular of these non-"e-class" commands available for tabulation. Values are compared with a local macro playerlist. 34 Example Results are omitted. The remaining 25 (83%) articles involved multivariable analyses; logistic regression (21 of 30, or 70%) was the most prominent type of analysis used, followed by linear regression (3 of 30, or 10%). Apache Spark is a unified analytics engine for big data processing, with built-in modules for streaming, SQL, machine learning and graph processing. will be in normal type. For example, if p = 0. Examples are given for entry of small datasets, recoding of categorical variables, and quantile-based or similar binning of counted or measured variables. e is the base. These are just examples; other types of weights are available in different software packages. Packaging information is available below. This handout is designed to explain the STATA readout you get when doing regression. Negative binomial panel count data model - can anyone help? I need a simple and easy reading on the negative binomial panel count data model, including examples of how to compile the data and the. When using AsJob , the job is created on the local computer and the results are automatically returned to the local computer, even though the job runs on the remote computers. The list of all available distributions is given in the following help file: -h rnd- The Inverse CDF method. The stem function seems to permanently reorder the data so that they are. The command egen newvar = count( stringVar ), by( groups ) does not work ( type mismatch r(109); ). In the first form, prtest tests that varname has a proportion of # p. We can help you pass your California Contractors License Exam. These are a convenient way of observing the relationship between two variables, or visualizing OLS regressions. com String functions. The examples presented in these chapters often use the authors' own Stata programs, augmenting official Stata's capabilities. Its value will range from zero to an arbitrarily large number. viewsource estadd. The independent-samples t test is commonly referred to as a between-groups design, and can also be used to analyze a control and experimental group. com *SAS ® product resources can be found here. This is appropriate when you wish to compare two or more groups, and the outcome variable is categorical. Available formats are official Stata's display formats, such as %9. This will create a R function called "adf", which runs the unit root test for each case. If you have private comments about contents, policy, or the software, contact the forum administrators. Let’s see how _n and _N work. According to posted specs, Intel plans to beef up performance of 8th generation Core products by increasing the number of cores to 6 on i5 and i7 families, and to 4 on i3 family. Here is a summary of symbols to use in regular expressions in Stata:. A 99 percent confidence interval would be wider than a 95 percent confidence interval (for example, plus or minus 4. More "Examples Of Count On Facts" links 15 Beautiful Examples of Mathematics in Nature – Planet From falling snowflakes to our entire galaxy, we count fifteen incredible examples of mathematics in nature! 15 – Snowflakes, You can’t go past the tiny but miraculous snowflake as an example of symmetry in nature. Xtline allows you to generate linear plots for panel data. Making Regression Tables in Stata. Data Dissemination Transitions to Data. regress chic egg Source | SS df MS Number of obs = 75. Basic Stata Graphic Guide with Examples. regpar can be used after an estimation command whose predicted values are interpreted as conditional proportions, such as logit, logistic, probit, or glm. A standard task in data management is producing a list of variable names showing which variables have speciﬁc properties, such as being of string. Furthermore, estout owes much to John Luke Gallup's outreg command, Roy Wada's outreg2 command, and official Stata's estimates table command. For signif the recognized values of digits are 122, and non-missing values are rounded to the nearest integer in that range. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to determine whether the mean of a dependent variable is the same in two or more unrelated, independent groups. if the condition number is 15, multicollinearity is a concern; if it is greater than 30 multicollinearity is a very serious concern. " Intuitively: The number of uncorrelated constructs that are jointly measured by the Y’s. Quickly create even complex LaTeX tables online with our generator -- cells merging is supported together with borders editing. This example shows how to run R and Stata code within the same Stata Markdown (. " Only useful if number of factors is less than number of Y's (recall "data reduction"). Multiple regression (an extension of simple linear regression) is used to predict the value of a dependent variable (also known as an outcome variable) based on the value of two or more independent variables (also known as predictor variables). How to Write the Equation into Standard Form When Given an Equation. The csv file is stored online. ignore values equal to the threshold. To create new variables (typically from other variables in your data set, plus some arithmetic or logical expressions), or to modify variables that already exist in your data set, Stata provides two versions of basically the same procedures: Command generate is used if a new variable is to be added to the data set. Overview of Factor Analysis. The Common Core of Data (CCD) is the Department of Education's primary database on public elementary and secondary education in the United States. " Estimability: Is there enough information in the data to estimate all of the parameters in the factor analysis? May be constrained to a certain number. How can I analyze count data in Stata? | Stata FAQ Stata has several procedures that can be used in analyzing count data. Any command you use in Stata can be part of a do file. In the following statistical model, I regress 'Depend1' on three independent variables. Macros in Stata are the equivalent of variables in other programming languages. A probability distribution is a table or an equation that links each outcome of a statistical experiment with its probability of occurrence. Following are examples of how to create new variables in Stata using the gen (short for generate) and egen commands:. uk Step-by Step Screenshot Guides to help you use STATA Not affiliated with Stata Corp. User contributions. when the dependent variable represents a discrete count variable, they are also known as Poisson regression models E [y |x ]= exp (x β + β. Stata is considered to be more powerful than SPSS with excellent syntax and programming capabilities, though not necessarily as flexible as SAS and R. Stepwise regression essentially does multiple regression a number of times, each time removing the weakest correlated variable. eststo clear Code The table looks messy in the Stata results window or the Stata log because the columns are tab-separated (note that tab characters are not. Earlier we looked at how the Stata by command can be used as a prefix for statistical commands (see help by). Intermediate Stata (Statistical Modeling) Chapter 5 Regression One notable exclusion from the previous chapter was comparing the mean of a continuous variables across three or more groups. Cox), and unique (M. Consider this sample dataset of monthly average temperature for three years. Second, GLMs may be extended to clustered data through generalized estimating equations (GEEs), and one chapter covers GEE theory and examples. The independent-samples t test is commonly referred to as a between-groups design, and can also be used to analyze a control and experimental group. Excel automatically removes leading zeros, and converts large numbers to scientific notation, like 1. Boosted Regression (Boosting): An introductory tutorial and a Stata plugin. Basics of STATA This handout is intended as an introduction to STATA. Statistics in the complete detailing of data right from the planning of data collection in the form of surveys and experiments. The bottom line: never show SEMs. When using AsJob , the job is created on the local computer and the results are automatically returned to the local computer, even though the job runs on the remote computers. sort — Sort data. frmttable executes very fast because almost all the code is in the Mata language, which is faster and more concise than the Stata macro language. The remaining 7 numbers are randomly generated. The following example loads up an automotive dataset included with Stata and counts the number of foreign and domestic cars in it. txt est1 est2 b b weight 1. In Stata this process is known as a macro. A Stata date is simply a number, but with the %td format applied Stata will interpret that number as "number of days since January 1, 1960. uk Abstract. Bar Graphs in Stata. Create New, or Modify Existing, Variables: Commands generate/replace and egen. Do files are very useful, particularly when you have many commands to issue repeatedly, or to reproduce results with minor or no changes. The student version of the program is identical to the regular version. (But again, these are just informal rules of thumb. With a by it does the same, but also creates a new variable (_Unique by default but can be named in the gen option). Felchero, Paola Blason, 2002. " to find both. Stepwise regression is a semi-automated process of building a model by successively adding or removing variables based solely on the t-statistics of their estimated coefficients. Bill Search; Advanced Search. number of non missing values The first thing we are going to do is determine which variables have a lot of missing values. We are dedicated to helping you and your family pursue your educational goals. To compute the mean all you do is add up all the values and divide by the number of values. Stata by and egen commands. The fixed effects are specified as regression parameters. This also influences the results of functions such as strlen(). Stata software can be used to calculate proportions and standard errors for NHANES data because the software takes into account the complex survey design of NHANES data when determining variance estimates. Create a new variable based on existing data in Stata. As an example, the (German) word für is a string of length three in Stata 13, but the string length is four in Stata 14. The complex number e iθ has the identity: e iθ = cos(θ) + i sin(θ) i is the imaginary unit (the square root of -1). Wooldridge (1st & 2nd eds. Note that the chi-square test is more commonly used in a very different situation -- to analyze a contingency table. If you need to investigate a fitted regression model further, create a linear regression model object LinearModel by using fitlm or stepwiselm. the number of cointegrating relations among the variables. Chi-square says that there is a significant relationship between variables, but it does not say just how significant and important this is. Stata Cheat Sheet Ansolabehere: 17. between pairs of coefficients indicate possible collinearity problems. Propensity Score Matching in Stata using teffects For many years, the standard tool for propensity score matching in Stata has been the psmatch2 command, written by Edwin Leuven and Barbara Sianesi. Using the response model P( x )=100-AGE( x) for customer x and the data table shown below, construct the cumulative gains and lift charts. Examples of these are social security numbers, phone numbers, credit card numbers, product codes, account numbers, or postal codes. This unit illustrates the use of Poisson regression for modeling count data. In this section we discuss how to read raw data files. One approach to constructing q-q plots is to first standardize the data and then proceed as described previously. Coding with Mata in Stata 8 4. SPSS makes it so easy to copy. The events, in this example, are merger announcement dates for 2007 obtained from SDC Platinum. 25, or 25% of a 24 hour day. Dummy (logical) variables in Stata take values of 0, 1 and missing. However, it also has two optional parameters: substring - string whose count is to be found. Mixed models consist of fixed effects and random effects. A number of States make their SID files available for purchase through the HCUP Central Distributor. Longitudinal models are two-level models in conventional multilevel programs, whereas they are single-level models in Mplus. Data Dissemination Transitions to Data. The number must be a number from 0 to 4. Examples are predictive margins or marginal effects computed over values of a continuous variable. by Michael Stepner. Apache Spark is a unified analytics engine for big data processing, with built-in modules for streaming, SQL, machine learning and graph processing. As strlen() refers to the memory used (and not the number of characters as they appear on the screen), the result of strlen(für) will also be 4 in Stata 14 in. In our set above, the median is 30. poisson hiab place. We know that the powers of the transition matrix give us interesting in-formation about the process as it evolves. eststo clear Code The table looks messy in the Stata results window or the Stata log because the columns are tab-separated (note that tab characters are not. Examples are predictive margins or marginal effects computed over values of a continuous variable. Re: st: Count observations per year. Things to Remember About Count Names in Excel. Zero-inflated and hurdle models account for over-representation of zero counts in the outcome data. Soccer betting statistics and analysis. Really, the abbreviation for any term Stata is Statistics and knowledge. _n is 1 in the first observation, 2 in the second, 3 in the third, and so on. 25 ─────────────┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── │ Coef. One-way ANOVA using Stata Introduction. Statistical Analysis of NCES Datasets Employing a Complex Sample Design > Examples > Slide 11 of 13 Page 2 of 6 Step 2- Use Stata to calculate an estimate and accompanying standard error. The computer you are using Stata needs to be connected to the internet for this download to work. Stepwise regression is a semi-automated process of building a model by successively adding or removing variables based solely on the t-statistics of their estimated coefficients. From the help file for xtmixed: Remarks on specifying random-effects equations. Following that example, is an example of calculating the geometric means. regpar can be used after an estimation command whose predicted values are interpreted as conditional proportions, such as logit, logistic, probit, or glm. On your computer, open a document in Google Docs. They can be used for both categorical and quantitative variables. String count() Parameters. A "match" is the piece of text, or sequence of bytes or characters that pattern was found to correspond to by the regex processing software. STATA was written by labor economists, so naturally many of its procedures are designed with economic applications in mind. Starting with Stata 8, the duplicates command provides a way to report on, give examples of, list, browse, tag, or drop duplicate observations. The partners are distinguished by variable "sex" with values 1 and 2, and there is a variable "coupleid" that distinguishes between couples. Silhouette analysis is more ambivalent in deciding between 2 and 4. 4 Learning SAS by Example: A Programmer’s Guide. For example, the above data is scattered wildly around the regression line, so 6. It’s a little harder to figure out the meaning of the slope. Examples of count data regression based on time series and panel data are also available. Monte Carlo Simulation in Stata Evaluating bias of an estimator For instance, let us consider simulating the performance of the estimator of sample mean, ¯x, in a context of heteroskedasticity. We have created a small Stata program called mdesc that counts the number of missing values in both numeric and character variables. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT. Opening/saving a Stata datafile Quick way of finding variables Subsetting (using conditional "if") Stata color coding system From SPSS/SAS to Stata Example of a dataset in Excel From Excel to Stata (copy-and-paste, *. type example. bysort householdid: gen householdsize=_N /* generates the variable householdsize, which is equal to the number of observations for each householdid. A basic count will be count if some condition is true & observation is in the same panel as this one & time is within interval of interest relative to this one The example above is part Stata code, part pseudocode. This is the int() function. Nevertheless, some features often catch users out, resulting in unnoticed errors or hours working out what has gone wrong. I just updated my ado files and am now having a problem with the -egen- function, -count-. Even this is condition is appropriate (for example, no lean body mass means no strength), it is often wrong to place this constraint on the regression line. Examples are given for entry of small datasets, recoding of categorical variables, and quantile-based or similar binning of counted or measured variables. For example, 6:00 AM is stored as 0. DFBETA shows how much a coefficient would change if that case were dropped from the data. Cox Department of Geography Durham University Durham, UK n. Individual Series † Derived Variable Analysis. These include the following, but note that this list is not exhaustive and packages are continually updated. Guild Of Light - Tranquility Music 1,807,164 views. 2810, look up the numbers that correspond to the. Several linear examples Nonlinear GMM Summary Exponential regression with exogenous regressors exponential regression models are frequently encountered in applied work they can be used as alternatives to linear regression models on log-transformed dependent variables when the dependent variable represents a discrete count. com July/August/September 2008 The most recent update to Stata was released on August 11. Guild Of Light - Tranquility Music 1,807,164 views. In this post, I show a few of simple example “loops” using Stata commands -foreach-, -local- and -forvalues- to handle some common simple repetitive tasks. It can be run interactively or in batch mode, and is fully programmable. Cox), and unique (M. Amazon WorkSpaces comes with a Windows 7, Windows 10, or Amazon Linux 2 desktop experience. Silhouette analysis is more ambivalent in deciding between 2 and 4. Coupon valid at participating locations only. Example, looking for DDE-2539? Enter "2539" in the Search Forms field below. This is an easy way to get see how many observations are in your dataset, but it can also count the number of observations based on a variable which groups observations. Multiple response analysis is a frequency analysis when there can be more than one response per participant to a survey question. Every project undertaken by Gehry Partners is designed personally and directly by Frank Gehry. Assignments: programming (no examples) Course Description. end (Optional) - ending index within the string where search ends. Bar Graphs in Stata. The command unique without a by reports the number of unique values for the varlist. So here is the complete step by step tutorial for Count characters inside EditText in android programmatically. To calculate the probability of the intersection of more than two events, the conditional probabilities of of the preceding events must be considered. Group based trajectory models in Stata - some graphs and fit statistics For my advanced research design course this semester I have been providing code snippets in Stata and R. A Stata macro is different to an Excel macro. Indicator variables in variable lists The most common use of dummy variables is in modelling, for instance using regression (we will use this as a general example below). Free trial. start (Optional) - starting index within the string where search starts. 2817 is closer to. 34 Example Results are omitted. Limdep: cross-section and panel. Stata continues to do this until all variables have been used. The loss of effectiveness by the use of cluster sampling, instead of simple random sampling, is the design effect. number of examples in the training set. Engle-Granger in Stata: The test can be done in 3 steps, as follows: Pre-test the variables for the presence of unit roots (done above) and check if they are integrated of the same order. Take for example the response variable length of hospital stay (mean = 5. For example, suppose we start with 2 feet of product on display, with an expected level of sales of. Stata has two built-in variables called _n and _N. Please note: The purpose of this page. Integrating Stata's impressive graphics, this comprehensive book presents hundreds of examples showing how you can apply Stata to accomplish a wide variety of tasks. Stata language], which is the length (number of rows) of each single column, here 454, and the other is the total number of responses, which is the total number of non-zero values over the 6 columns [1411 here]. For example, consider the test score values: 15, 20, 21, 20, 36, 15, 25, 15. In practice, Cronbach’s alpha is a lower-bound estimate of reliability because heterogeneous test items would violate the assumptions of the tau-equivalent model. Basics of STATA This handout is intended as an introduction to STATA. Inflation is often a significant component of apparent growth in any series measured in dollars (or yen, euros, pesos, etc. Number Software of Blogs Source R 550 R-Bloggers. Correlation Example. SPSS Basic Skills Tutorial: Data Entry When we are creating a new data set, it is typical to start by definining the names and other properties of the variables first and then entering the specific values into each variable for each independent source of data. binscatter is a Stata program which generates binned scatterplots. Stata question; I need to count the number of occurrences of a value and average another variable? Heya, I have a dataset including the total number of sales of a certain item, the price and a lot of other variables. and negative binomial for count data, Bernoulli for binary data (including logit and probit) and Gamma for duration data. C++ Program to Check Whether a Number is Prime or Not Example to check whether an integer (entered by the user) is a prime number or not using for loop and ifelse statement. This new variable contains the number of unique values of the varlist for each level of the by variable. _%+-] + @ [A-Z 0-9. For example, if Prob(F) has a value of 0. Alternatively, you can choose to have Stat/Transfer write programs to accompany output fixed format ASCII files that will allow these files to be read into SAS, SPSS, or Stata. Soccer Stats Tracker it's a program that I've created a few years ago mainly for myself and my closest friends. -foreach-: loop over items. I discuss macros and loops, and show how to write your own (simple) programs. esttab and estout tabulate the e()-returns of a command, but not all commands return their results in e(). Stark State College is a state institution of higher ed offering affordable and transferable education. A number of States make their SID files available for purchase through the HCUP Central Distributor. For example, if, according to Mendel's laws, you expected 10 of 20 offspring from a cross to be male and the actual observed number was 8 males, then you might want to know about the "goodness to fit" between the observed and expected. # Giorgio V. One method (as in the casebook and repeated in class) is to consider the effect of small percentage changes in the predictor. For example, d12389 would be 12389, 89 afterwards. 2 Reading Data Into Stata. This is fast—just avoid the Count extension method. The correlation is one of the most common and most useful statistics. We would be delighted!. This is because the cost-based SQL Optimizer (CBO) relies on the quality of the statistics to choose the best execution plan for all SQL statements. Administrative Healthcare Data: A Guide to Its Origin, Content, and Application Using SAS; Advanced Log-Linear Models Using SAS. csv) Describe and summarize Rename Variable labels Adding value labels. This will output the results of your event study into an Excel-readable spreadsheet file:. Some packages are less rigid, but Stata enforces the (reasonable) convention that 0 indicates a negative outcome and all other values indicate a positive outcome. The parts in slanted type are pseudocode. The command egen newvar = count( stringVar ), by( groups ) does not work ( type mismatch r(109); ). A confusion matrix (Kohavi and Provost, 1998) contains information about actual and predicted classifications done by a classification system. Length of compared string (if the string is shorter, as many characters as possible). Limdep: cross-section and panel. " You can then use that number in a variety of ways. , males vs females, employed vs unemployed, under 21. " (multiple dichotomies) "List up to three reasons you do physical exercise. The variable prate.